Bias, Structure, and Injustice: A Reply to Haslanger

Presented at the Bias in Context Conference at the University of Sheffield, 2016 ASPP, the MAP@Leeds Conference, the University of Hamburg Feminist Philosophy Workshop, the 11th Annual Yale Bouchet Conference on Diversity and Graduate Education, and North Carolina State University Philosophy.

Sally Haslanger (2015) has argued that recent philosophical focus on implicit bias is overly individualistic, since social inequalities are best explained in terms of social structures rather than the actions and attitudes of individuals. I defend a certain kind of individualistic theorizing and practice aimed at rectifying structural injustice, and I offer an alternative conception of social structure according to which implicit biases are themselves best understood as a special type of structure.

For a full draft, please email me at robin.zheng(at)


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